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Massachusetts (English: , /-zIts/, Massachusett: Muhsachuweesee [[email protected]@wi:si:]), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Maine to the east, Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north and New York to the west. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, which is the most populous city in New England. It is the capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England. However, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. In the late 20th century during an era known as the Massachusetts Miracle, the Commonwealth shifted from being known for their manufacturing to services to being a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.
The area that became Plymouth was colonized by the Pilgrims on the Mayflower in 1620. In 1630 the Massachusetts Bay Colony, taking its name from the native Massachusett people, established settlements in Boston (and Salem) in 1630. The Salem Witch Trials of 1692 saw Salem and its environs go through mass hysteria. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which was responsible for many important technological advances–including interchangeable parts–during the Industrial Revolution. In 1786, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans known as Shays’ Rebellion influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. The Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept Britain and the Thirteen Colonies in the 18th Century, was led by General Henry Knox. This revolt, known as Shays’ Rebellion, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. Boston became the “Cradle of Liberty” because of its role in the American Revolution.